National symbols of any country are very essential as they represent the culture, traditions, ecology, and mythology of that country. The Islamic Republic of Pakistan has its unique symbols. The national symbols of Pakistan show the significance of that particular place, thing, food, or event.
National Flag of Pakistan
The National Flag of Pakistan was officially adopted on 11 August 1947 by the constituent Assembly. The national flag has a green color with a silver crescent moon and a five-rayed star at the center of it. The flag has a white verticle stripe at the hoist side.
The dark green color represents the nation of Pakistan, and the white color represents the minorities of Pakistan. The Crescent moon and stars symbolize Islam and the rights of the minorities. The five rayed stars symbolize light and knowledge.
Amiruddin Kidwai designed the Pakistani flag. The current design of the flag is based on the flag of the All India Muslim League. In the national anthem of Pakistan national flag is referred to as the پرچم ستارہ و هلال Parcham-e-Sitāra-o-Hilāl that means the flag of the crescent and star. The designer of the flag considered the design of the All Muslim Leagues’ flag.
The government of Pakistan has set the rule for the display of the flag at full mast on 23 March every year. And on Independence Day to White – peace, and honesty & symbolizing the role of religious minorities.
The green color symbolizes the spirit of hope and love. It is associated with Islam. White color symbolize minorities. The combination of two colors symbolizes the founder of the nation and respect for other religions. It also represents light and progress.
The flag of Pakistan was approved three days before the existence of Pakistan. The dark green color of the flag of Pakistan has a proportion of length and width of 3:2. The size of the white portion is one-fourth of the flag, and three-fourths are dark green.
The dark green color of the flag has the color code “#006600”. The flag of Pakistan flies at the same level as the UN. The national flag must be higher than the other flags. On national days like Pakistan day, Independence Day, Quaid-e-Azam’s birthday, the national flag is flown.
On the following occasions, the national flag is the half-mast Death anniversary of Allama Iqbal, the Death anniversary of Quad-e-Azam, Death anniversary of Liaqat Ali khan.
National Anthem of Pakistan
The anthem of Pakistan is known as Qaumi Tarana in the Urdu language. National Anthem is also called the Sacred Land. In 1949 Ahmad Chagla created the music of the national anthem. In 1952 Hafeez Jalandhari wrote the lyrics of the national anthem.
The National anthem is composed of three stanzas. The tune of the music is a mixture of eastern and western music. that was composed by Ahmad G.Chagla.The national anthem symbolizes the ambition and determination for the progress of the nation of Pakistan. Anthem represents the vital role of past events and hope for the future.
In 1954 National anthem was adopted officially by the government. The national anthem evokes the spirit of faith and freedom. The national anthem represents the idealogy and Islamic foundation of the country. Anthem is the sign of intrinsic strength.
The national anthem of Pakistan evokes pride in the nation and spirit to serve the country. It symbolizes patriotism of the nation .21 music instruments have been used for the national anthem. Thirty-eight different tones were used in the composition of the anthem. In 80 seconds, the anthem completes its time duration.
The Prize money of 10,000 PKR was delivered to the winner of the competition in the national anthem song. In the competition, the final anthem song was selected from 723 songs. The national anthem is written in the Persian language except for one Urdu word. The national anthem was broadcast on Radio for the first time.
The government of Pakistan formed National Anthem Committee (NAC). The committee was assigned the task of finalizing the official national anthem of Pakistan. The Chairperson of the committee was Sheikh Muhammad Ikram, who was the information secretary. Several poets and politicians were part of the committee.
In 1950 President of Indonesia visited Pakistan. Unfortunately that time, Pakistan had no tune to play for their homeland. So the government of Pakistan formed the NAC to finalize the national anthem. Finally, in 1950 at the visit of the Shah of Iran anthem of Pakistan was played.
National Day of Pakistan
Pakistan Resolution day is recognized as a national day of Pakistan. It is also known as Pakistan day or Republic day. In Urdu, it is called by Yaum-e-Pakistan. The resolution was passed on 23 March 1940 in Lahore.
Parade by armed forces of Pakistan is made on Pakistan day to celebrate the national day. In the celebration, military and civil both participate held in the capital of Pakistan Islamabad. The celebration is held in the morning and presided by the president of Pakistan. Prime minister, cabinet ministers, chief of army staff, and chairman joint chief attend the ceremony.
Pakistan military services show their power and capabilities in the parade ceremony. The president confers medals and awards to military persons. Military forces lay wreaths at the mausoleum of Allama Iqbal and Quaid-e Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Pakistan day celebrates the Pakistan resolution that the Muslim League adopted. On 23 March 1940, the resolution was passed that Muslims of the subcontinent demand their separate state.
Muslim league held this resolution in Minto Park Lahore. Muhammad Ali Jinnah led the resolution. They proposed the difference between Hindus and Muslims. Abul Kashem Fazlul Huq moved the resolution from26 October 1873 – 27 April 1962. Abul Kashem was known as her-e-Bangal
Pakistan day has a vital role in the history of Pakistan. By celebrating the nation of Pakistan, memorize the struggle and sacrifices of our ancestors for the formation of a separate homeland. The resolution signifies the national aspiration. The nation of Pakistan pays tribute to the national heroes, martyrs, and fathers of the nation.
Pakistan resolution day rejected the idea of United India and proposed the idea of a separate homeland. The national flag is flown on all the buildings, including government and civil, and decorated with lights to celebrate Pakistan Day.
The public holiday is observed in the country to celebrate Pakistan resolution day. Military parades reflect peace, determination, unity, and cohesion. Military forces Army, Navy, and Air Force give discipline, unity, and faith.
The National language of Pakistan
The national language of Pakistan is recognized as Urdu. It is a mixture of many languages like Arabic and Persian. The Urdu language has a very close resemblance to Hindi. East India Company declared the Urdu language as a court language and replaced it with the Persian language in 1837.
Urdu is derived from the Indo-Aryan language. Basically, the origin of Urdu is too old. Urdu is a Turkish word that means army, that’s why it is called Lashkari Zaban natively.
In Pakistan, Urdu is taught as a compulsory subject till the higher secondary level in schools. Urdu name was introduced by Ghulam Hamdani in 1780. Urdu is recognized as an official language.
National Emblem of Pakistan
The national emblem of Pakistan symbolizes the ideology of Pakistan, cultural significance, and economic worth. Officially the emblem of Pakistan was approved in 1954. The emblem of Pakistan was designed by Maraj Muhammad.
The national motto is presented on the emblem. Faith, Unity, and Discipline are the main principles for the formation of Pakistan. Crescent and star show the signs of Islam. Four main crops are presented at the center of the emblem. The national flower is presented in the form of a wreath.
National Game of Pakistan
The National game of Pakistan is hockey. It’s a game of a team. Each team has ten players with a goalkeeper. Players carry a ball and a hockey stick. This game is played worldwide.
In a hockey game, the goalkeeper can touch the ball; however other players cannot touch the ball with any part of their body. Players can play with the ball using the flat side of a hockey stick. Use of rounded part of the stick will be considered foul. The goalkeeper is also not allowed to use the back of the hockey stick during the game.
The winning team will be finalized based on more goals comparing the other team. In case if the goals of both teams are the same, the game will be considered a tie, and extra time will be provided to the players. Extra time will be provided if the match is drawn or in case of a penalty shoot-out. Provision of extra time varies depending on the tournament and league rules. According to American play, 10 minutes of overtime will be provided to the players. It is considered a golden goal period.
The sticks of hockey are made up of wood, fiberglass, and carbon fiber. It can be made with a combination of carbon fiber and fiberglass. The height of the hockey varies according to the player’s height, usually till the hip of the player. The stick of the hockey has two sides round a flat side. Players are allowed to play with the flat side. Use of the round side in the game is considered foul. Goalkeepers have different designs of sticks. However, the goalies can also use the regular hockey sticks.
However, the specific hockey sticks for goalkeepers have another curve on the stick. The purpose of the curve is to block the ball. The uniform of the hockey players may include shorts, shoes, a skirt, mouthguard, shin guards, etc.
National Dress of Pakistan
Shalwar Kameez is considered the national dress of Pakistan. Both men and women wear shalwar kameez in all the regions of the country. Government officials who were working in the secretariat have been ordered by the government to wear shalwar kameez as an official dress since 1982. Shalwar kameez has a variety of designs. In every province, it is worn in different styles. In Pakistani dress, kameez means a shirt, and shalwar means trousers.
Shalwar kameez of women have various designs and styles. The sleeves of the shirt have various length variety, size of the shirt also has variety, and neckline also has a variety of designs. Dresses are designed with beautiful embroidery and colors. Pants, Trousers, pajamas, and shalwar has a lot of varieties and styles, like Patiala shalwar, churidar pajama, cigarette pants, tulip trousers, etc. Dupatta or scarf is also a part of traditional dress. Muslim women like to cover their heads with a dupatta or scarf.
Men in Pakistan wear shalwar kameez or kurta shalwar.The waistcoat is also included as a traditional dress. The length of the kurta or kameez extends up to the knees of the wearer. Kurta is worn with trousers, pajamas, shalwar, or pants. Pakistani men look dashing in national dress.
A variety of fabrics and different beautiful prints are used to make the dress more elegant. Most of the dresses are knee-length. Men also wear caps of different styles and colors.
National Animal of Pakistan
The Markhor belongs to the goat family. Officially Markhor is considered the national animal of Pakistan. Markhors are magnificent giant goats that have massive twisted horns. The word Markhor is taken from the Persian language, which means Snake Eater.
Markhors are an inhabitant of scrub forest. They live in the hilly and mountainous areas, usually 600-3600 meters high. In Pakistan, Markhors inhabit Northern areas like Gilgit, Chitral, Hunza, and Kalash valley. They don’t live in deep snow.
Markhors have more giant hooves that help them in climbing. They are typically climbers, so they get their food from Oak trees, Pine and Junipers. However, they are herbivores and feed on leaves, fruits, and flowers. It plays a vital role in spreading leaves and seeds in the ecosystem.
Male like to live alone; however female Markhor moves in herds of 1-10 animals. As a wild goat, it weighs from 40-110 kilograms. And their horns grow almost 64-160 inches long in males, whereas 10-25 inches in females goats.
Markhor is a wild animal. They are usually in a combination of grey and white color of the body; however, legs are in a combination of black and white color. Their body has long, thick hair in winter, which sheds off in summer.
Markhor is considered a symbol of bravery. That’s why Inter-Service Intelligence ISI has selected Markhor as an official symbol. Markhors are morphors, and they usually fight for their desired female with their horns. The rings on their horns show their age. They breed once a year. Their life span is almost nine years.
Unfortunately, Markhor has conservation status as they are at risk of extinction. The International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources [IUCN] has classed them as endangered species. Wolf and leopard prey Markhors; that’s why they are under threat of extinction. But in Pakistan Markhor’s Population is recovered now.
National Bird of Pakistan
Chakor Partridge is considered a National bird of Pakistan. It is commonly known as a game bird. Chakor is a round shape middle size bird, and it prefers to run as it cannot fly in a long distance. Its size ranges between 34-38 cm.
Chakor symbolizes love in Pakistani Culture as well as in Indian Culture and mythology. Chakor loves the moon as they are considered to gaze moon.Chakor is pugnacious in nature.
Chakor has a brown back, gray breast, white face, and red legs. Chakor is considered a challenging bird for hunting purposes as it suddenly disappears when feeling any danger.
Chakor likes to eat seeds and insects. They usually live in groups. Its habitat is Pakistan, Kashmir, India, and Afghanistan. Chakor,s natural habitat is a rocky hillside. They breed in dry and hilly places.
Pakistan has diverse weather. It has varied land that becomes the habitat of the rare bird of the entire world. The beautiful wetlands and lakes of Pakistan attract millions of birds that migrate across the world. The especially Siberian region becomes the habitat of the birds. The government of Pakistan has made bird sanctuaries for migratory birds.
They produce a distinct voice when they feel danger or threat. Chakor is challenging for hunters. They are commonly known as game birds. They give tough time to the hunters and disappear when they feel danger. The hunting months for Chakor are June and July.
Chakor usually flies in groups. Chakor has cultural significance. In Pakistani Culture, Chakor is a sign of good luck. In Sanskrit, Chakor means love.
Chakras are monogamous. Chakor lays usually8-14 eggs. The diet of the Chakor varies in different seasons. The diet may consist of seeds, green leaves, insects, and berries. Sagebrush and sunflower are the favorites for their food.
They usually make a nest on the ground under a bush or a rock. They like to live in hot weather and don’t prefer humidity or rainfall. However, live near water and agricultural areas.
National River of Pakistan
The national river of Pakistan is the Indus River. It is the longest river in Pakistan. It originates from Himalayan Mountain and finally merges into the Arabian Sea Karachi. The annual flow of the Indus River is 207 cubic kilometers, and its total length is 3200km.
The Indus River is the primary source of water provision to the Punjab and Sindh agricultural production. It is considered very useful for the development of the economy of Pakistan. It is also an essential source for industries and portable water.
In the winter season, the river diminishes; however, in the monsoon season, its bank overflows, resulting in flooding. Floods irrigate the desert of Sindh that results in cultivation and sometimes soil salinization. The main reason for the drop in groundwater levels and loss of vegetation is the interference of humans in the natural way of drainage and deforestation.
In c.325 BCE Alexander the Great and in 16th Century Mughals suggested forest cover. Now reforestation is completed in near parts. The Indus river is rich in fish. Sindh Province has big fishing centers like Tatta Sukkar and Kotri. Hilsa fish is considered as the best variety as an edible fish. Trout fish is found in Hazara and Swat regions. The mouth of the river is rich in marine fish and prawns.
Near the port of Karachi, a fish harbor has been built with modern cold storage and marketing facilities. The export trade of prawns and sea fish takes place here.
Although the Indus River is the key source of water provider for agricultural needs. The old irrigation system is revived with a modern irrigation system. The most incredible canal system is created now in Pakistan.
The Indus Water Treaty has constructed two dams in Pakistan. Marcella Dam is constructed on the Indus River. It is a gigantic project of Pakistan. Ghazi Brotha is another hydroelectric project that works with the Indus River.
National Tree of Pakistan
Deodar Cedar or Cedrus Deodar is recognized as the National Tree of Pakistan. The tree has a graceful shape and is popular among people. It’s a slow-growing tree and is considered so significant in the mountainous ecosystem.
The name of the tree is derived from the Sanskrit term Nevada. Where ‘deva’ means god and Daru means “wood and tree.” The meaning of compound devadaru means wood of gods. The tree is found in the northern areas of Pakistan. It is an evergreen coniferous tree. The tree has a crown of cones with drooping branches.
The height of deodar is about 40-50 m [131-164]. The trunk of the deodar is almost 3 m [10 ft.]. The deodar tree leaves are needle-like and are 2.5-5 cm [0.98-1.97] long. Needles form a cluster of 20-30 on shoots. The height of the female cone is 7-13 cm long and 5-9 cm in width. Female cones have barrel-shaped. Female cones become mature in 12 months and release seeds that are winged in shape. The height of the male cones is 4-6 cm long. The pollen of male cone shed in autumn.The tree grows at the altitude of 1,500-3,200 m [5,000-10,000 ft.].
The deodar tree is cultivated as an ornament tree. The tree is grown in parks and gardens due to its majestic shape. It is planted in multiple habitats. Although its native habitat is the high mountains of the Himalayas, deodar trees are planted in mild winter regions. The trees can survive in cool summer areas.
The Deodar tree is used as timber in many countries. It is famous as a landscape tree. However, it is considered a great source of lumber as its wood is durable and robust. The wood of deodar is rot-resistant. That’s why it is used for construction and carpentry. The wood of deodar is used for bridges. Pencils are also made by it. As it is believed to be the tree of god, that’s why it used to make temples and mummies. It has cultural importance.
National Flower of Pakistan
Jasmine is known as the National flower of Pakistan. It is a star-like flower and has an intoxicating scent. Jasmine originated from the Himalayas plain. Later it was brought to many countries of the world. Now it is cultivated all over the world. It has many varieties.
Jasmine has an attractive scent. The white flower of the jasmine symbolizes attachment, amiability, and modesty. In Pakistan, it is cultivated in homes, gardens, and parks. Its meanings are associated with love and romance. It also represents beauty and sensuality.
It is planted in gardens because of its paradisiacal scent that is relaxing, helpful for sleeping, and attracts people. Almost 200 species of jasmine flower are cultivated in the whole world. The women use jasmine flowers in their hair.
Its color is white and yellow. Jasmine flower has 5-8 petals. The blooming season of the flower is summer and spring. It is used as an ornament tree. Oil of jasmine is used to make perfumes. It is also used in the cosmetic Industry. The plant, the jasmine, is cultivated in moist, well-drained, and sandy loam soil. The plantation time is from June to November. Some varieties of the flower have deciduous leaves, and others have evergreen leaves.
Jasmine flower has great significance in the country’s economy as the oil of their seeds and flowers are used in various aspects of life. The flower is used for therapeutic properties. It is used for medicinal purposes. It is used as an antiseptic. The flower uses healthcare products. Its fragrance can do aromatherapy. It is used to treat many diseases like sunburn and sunstroke, headache and rashes, anxiety, and sexual problems, etc. It is also used to relieve pain. The flower is famous for its fragrance. The flower grows in clusters of shrubs.
The plant needs sunshine and water to flourish. It describes the symbol of beauty and purity. It adds beauty to the landscape. The height of the plant is 10-15 feet. It grows 12-24 inches annually. The distance between the plants must be eight feet apart.
National Fruit of Pakistan
The national fruit of Pakistan is mango. Mangifera indica is its scientific name.Mango is a luscious fruit having a sweet taste and flavor and has an appealing aroma. It is rich in nutrients like minerals, vitamins, and antioxidants. Mango provides health benefits. It is commonly known as a king of fruits.
Almost 20 million tons of mangoes are grown in India, which is half of the world,s mango supply. The mongo is cultivated in tropical climates.
Pakistan is the sixth number in the world in producing mango. Pakistan produces about 1.7 million tons of mango every year. Punjab and Sindh provinces harvest most of the number of mangoes. Sindhi variety of mango is produced at a significant level. This variety is famous for its flavor and yellow color.
Mango has many nutritional benefits. Mangoes are immunity booster as mangoes contain vitamins A, C, and E in it. The fruit fulfills the daily requirement of vitamins. It also has antioxidants properties that protect the body from radical damage. Mangoes improve heart health as they contain potassium. Diabetic patients can also eat mangoes as this fruit regulate the blood sugar level.
It lowers down the high blood pressure as it lowers the sodium content in the body.Mangoes promote sleep.Mangoes contain vitamins, potassium, and magnesium that helps to produce a hormone that maintains circadian rhythm.
Mangoes are helpful in weight loss. Phytochemical nutrients cut down the natural fat. It gives the full longer feeling due to fibrous fruit. It helps indigestion. The fiber of the fruit prevents stomach disease.
Mangoes promote keeping eyesight healthy. Vitamin A helps to improve eyesight. Mangoes are also helpful for skin glow. Mangoes can be used as a body scrubber and can use a mask for the skin.
Mangoes are famous for their exclusive flavor and varieties. Many sweet dishes and beverages are made from mangoes. Pickles are also made of raw mangoes. It can be used as a fruit salad. Puree, cocktails, smoothies can also be made with mango.
The National Dish of Pakistan
Nihari is recognized as the national dish of Pakistan. It is known as an Arabic dish. It is a meat-based dish. Nihari has flavourful profundity. According to Eastern natural medication [Hikmat], nihari’s utilization is in the prevention of sinus, cold, fever. Nihari food keeps the body warm in the winter season.
Nihari is considered as a breakfast food. It has been the food of Muslim Nawabs of the subcontinent. Nihari is considered a slow-cooked dish of shank meat. It is rich, thick curry loaded with lumps of veal and hamburger.
The word Nihari is derived from the Arabic word Nahar that means morning. That’s why this dish is a food of the beginning of the day. It is mainly used in winter breakfast. This dish is considered rich and energetic to get the required daily energy.
The maximum time duration of cooking Nihari is 6-8 hours and timing to serve is at dawn. Nihari is cooked with Beef. Mutton and chicken meat. Magaz [cerebrum] nihari and Nali [marrow] nihari are other varieties of this dish. All the varieties have the same ingredients for cooking.
In the cooking technique, nihari is cooked with a covered lid to maintain the warmth and steam. Spices [Masalas] are added to enhance the generosity of the dish.
The spices used for this dish are cloves, garam masala, cardamom, cumin, etc. Nihari is a serving dish on different occasions to the guests. The flavorful spices are absorbed with bone marrow to create a tasty dish in the world.
Nihari is recognized as a traditional Muslim dish. The curry of the dish is eaten with roti naan or chapatti. It is considered a royal dish and can be served on festive and parties and special occasions. The dish becomes delicious with the amalgamation of spices with meat. Rosewater and saffron may increase the aroma of the dish. It can be garnished with Ginger, lemon slice, and green chilies.
The dish is as nutritious as it contains a lot of protein due to the presence of meat. The dish can make us lazy. Beef shank and Marrow are used for cooking the dish.120 gram serving of nihari contains 250 calories.
National Drink of Pakistan
Sugarcane juice is recognized as a national drink of Pakistan. It’s a sweet and sugary drink that is consumed in the summer season. The drink is a natural beverage that has a vast range of health benefits.
It treats many diseases in traditional eastern medicine like liver, kidney, and other diseases. The juice is extracted from sugar cane by pressing it. Lemon, Ginger can be mixed to enhance the flavor.
Sugarcane juice is a sweet, syrupy liquid that’s pressed from peeled sugar cane. It’s often sold by street vendors who mix it with lime or other juices and serve it over ice for a tasty drink. Sugarcane juice contains almost 70% water, 15% fiber, and 15% sugar. It is the primary source of providing table sugar in the world.
The juice contains antioxidants, vitamins, electrolytes, minerals, and potassium which are beneficial for health. It reduces dehydration. The drink is a natural coolant and detoxes the body naturally.
The juice decreases the risks of infectious disease. It prevents urinary tract infections. It prevents kidney stones. It fights against acne problems. It is beneficial for healthy skin. It improves the glow of the skin. It reduces fine lines and wrinkles. It maintains the natural oil of the skin.
Sugar cane juice is a natural energy booster. It regulates the sugar level and rehydrates our body to prevent fatigue. The juice helps in healing the wounds. It benefits in speeding up the healing process.
Sugarcane juice enhances liver functioning. It fights body cancer. Sugarcane juice contains calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron, which maintain body balance.
The drink improves the digestive system. It helps in maintaining pH levels. It helps in the development of bones and teeth. Sugar cane juice is low cholesterol and low sodium drink which helps to maintain kidney functions.
It reduces the burning sensation. The sugarcane juice prevents tooth decay. It strengthens the teeth. It also prevents bad breath. It improves nutrient deficiency.
National vegetable of Pakistan
The national vegetable of Pakistan is Okra, also known as Ladyfinger. It is a warm-season vegetable. Ladyfinger is a rich source of fiber and nutrients that are beneficial for our health. The sticky juice of Ladyfinger is used to thicken sauces.
Ladyfinger has an elongated shape and is 2-6 inches long. Its color is green and has seeds in it that are sticky. These seeds are edible. It has high nutritional value.
All the parts of the ladyfinger plant are functional, like leaves, stems, flowers, buds, and seeds. Okra has a mild taste. Ladyfinger has high nutrients of vitamin C and K that help to improve the immune system.
Ladyfinger is a rich source of protein that helps in benefiting bone structure and controls sugar levels. Antioxidants in Ladyfinger improve heart health, lower the risk of blood clotting, and protect from inflammation. It improves cognition and memory and lowers down the aging process.
Ladyfinger helps in binding cholesterol during digestion. It prevents cancer. Ladyfinger maintains a blood sugar level that is beneficial for health. Ladyfinger contains Vitamin B9 nutrient, which is beneficial for pregnant women. It helps in developing the brain and spine.
Ladyfinger contains nutrients like potassium, vitamin B, vitamin C, folic acid, and calcium. Vegetable has low calories with high fiber. It is used for medicinal purposes. Its dietary fiber cuts hunger cravings. Intake of dietary fiber improves insulin sensitivity. It lowers down the cholesterol level.
The addition of Ladyfinger to the diet may contribute to a healthy lifestyle. It has anti-fatigue benefits. Its water is used in the treatment of diabetes. It is cooked as a vegetable. Ladyfinger is used in making soups and stews. Its seeds are used as a substituent for coffee.
The leaves of Ladyfinger are of heart shape. The color of the flower is yellow and has a crimson center. The pod is hairy in structure at the base. It has seeds inside the pod.
National Instrument of Pakistan
National Instrument of Pakistan is recognized ad Daf. It is used in various types of music in Pakistan. Daf instrument is used in the music of many countries.
Traditionally it has a wooden frame that is round in shape. It also has a translucent head that is made of fish or goatskin. In the modern era frame of the duff is also made of metal, and the head can be made with synthetic material.
Daf’s existence can be traced to the rise of Islam. Daf was included in the religious music of Iran before Sufism. Daf instruments were used to play in the Middle East, Greece and Rome. In Iran, daf was used in traditional music.
The Arabs introduced this instrument in Spain. In the 15th century, daf was used in Sufi ceremonies. The width of the frame of daf is 45-50 cm [18-20 in]. The depth of the frame of daf is 5-7 cm [2-3 in]
Jingles are attached around the edge of the inside of the drum. The sound of daf can be produced by hitting the head of the daf with hand, by holding daf with the left hand, and striking the head with the fingers of the right hand. The sound of daf is loud, rapid, and sharp. Daf is considered the only musical instrument that Islam permits. Prophet Muhammad [PBUH] was permitted to play daf in different celebrations.
National Mountain of Pakistan
The national mountain of Pakistan is K2. It is the highest mountain in Pakistan. It ranges in the Karakoram. Mountain is 2nd highest peak in the world. The name K2 is derived from the Karakoram range.K2 is 28,251 feet [8,611 meters]
K2 Mountain is a glacier. It rises from the base at the height of 15,000 0feet [4,570 meters]K2 mountain was discovered in 1856.Col.T.G.Montgomerie, during the survey of India, discovered it. Mount Godwin is the first surveyor of K2 Mountain. He was known as a geographer in the 19th century.
The anglo-Swiss expedition made the first attempt to reach the summit in 1902. In 1909 some other unsuccessful attempts were made by the Italian expedition. They reached almost 20, 000 feet [6,100 meters]. In 1938 and 1939, American expeditions followed the route; they reached approximately 27,500 feet [8,380 meters]
In 1953 another attempt was tried by the expedition; they reached approximately 25,900 feet [7,900 meters. In 1954 an Italian expedition with scientists, a doctor, and a Pakistani finally conquered the mountain. One team member died of pneumonia.K2 has severe cold weather, and climbing slopes makes the journey more challenging and complex.
Wana Rutkiewicz was the first woman who attempted to climb K2. She was a Polish climber and tried to attempt in 1986. In 1986 thirteen climbers died, and in 1995, six climbers died. In 2008 eleven climbers died.
K2 Mountain is one of the most prominent mountains in the Karakoram Range.K2 Mountain stands above the glacier valley at the height of 3,000 meters [9,840]. The mountain looks like a steep pyramid. The north side of the mountain is the steepest. The correct measurement was made in 1987.
National Monument of Pakistan
The national monument of Pakistan is known as the Pakistan monument Islamabad. The monument of Pakistan is a sign of solidarity and inheritance. The building of the monument shows the magnificent architecture that presents the images of the martyrs and leaders of Pakistan who sacrificed their lives for their beloved homeland.
The museum is also adjacent to the building of the monument. It is situated in the Shakarpariyan hills of Islamabad. The design of the architect was finalized from 21 designs. Arif Alvi’s design was finalized. Syed Muhammad Khalid supervised the construction as an Engineer
National Mosque of Pakistan
The national mosque of Pakistan is known as Shah Faisal Mosque. The mosque is situated at Margalla hill Islamabad. It is the 2nd largest mosque in Pakistan. The design of the mosque was selected from 43 designs. Shah Faisal funded it. The design of the mosque is unconventional. It does not have a traditional dome. The Turkish Architect designed the Mosque.
Faisal mosque has an eight-sided center. The design is made after the inspiring architecture of Kaaba. The front courtyard has a water pond and fountain. Stairs are on the left side of the courtyard. The ablution place is near the pond.