Nili Ravi buffalo is known as the best buffalo breed of Pakistan and is famous worldwide for dairy production. The area between the Ravi and Sutlej rivers in Punjab’s unified state is the home territory of Nili Ravi buffaloes.
Nili Ravi Buffalo is a breed of water buffalo found in Pakistan. It is known for its high milk production and is often called the “black gold” of Pakistan due to its economic importance. The Nili Ravi Buffalo is a crossbreed of two breeds of water buffalo, the Nili and the Ravi, and is named after the river Ravi in Pakistan.
Nili Ravi Buffaloes are primarily found in the Punjab region of Pakistan and are one of the country’s primary sources of milk production. The breed is known for its high milk yield, ranging from 10 to 15 liters per day and sometimes even higher. Milk is rich in fat and protein and is often used to make traditional dairy products such as yogurt, butter, and ghee.
The Nili Ravi Buffalo is also used for meat production, and its beef is considered a delicacy in Pakistan. The breed is well adapted to the local climate and is known for its resistance to diseases and ability to survive in harsh conditions. However, the breed is also threatened due to poor breeding practices, lack of awareness among farmers, and urbanization.
The government and private organizations are trying to conserve and improve the Nili Ravi Buffalo breed. It includes initiatives such as establishing breeding farms, providing education and training to farmers, and promoting the consumption of Nili Ravi Buffalo milk and meat. The Nili Ravi Buffalo is important to Pakistan’s agriculture sector and cultural heritage.
History and Origin of Nili Ravi
This breed arose from regularly crossbreeding two distinct varieties (Nili and Ravi). Originally, Nili and Ravi were two separate kinds, but with the flow of time and extensive interbreeding, the two breeds merged to form a single breed.
Both buffalo species appeared remarkably identical due to coincidence characteristics, making it difficult to tell them apart. As a result, in 1950, the two breeds merged to form the Nili Ravi.
Some genuine Nili and Ravi specimens can still be discovered in the province’s rural regions. Lahore, Bahawalnagar, Sheikhupura, Okara, Multan, Faisalabad, Sahiwal, and Bahawalpur are the main cities where this species may be spotted.
However, due to its excellent milk quality, it is located throughout the country and imported by several foreign countries. The name Nili is said to have sprung from the blue water of the Sutlej River.
It is related to the Murrah buffalo species and is primarily used for milk production. The best species can be spotted southwest of Mailsi, Pakpatan, along the Sutlej River’s riverine region. It is Pakistan’s top buffalo breed, dubbed the “Black Gold of Pakistan.
Why is Nili Ravi called the Black Gold of Pakistan?
The Nili Ravi buffalo is often called the “Black Gold” of Pakistan due to its high economic value and importance in its dairy industry. The breed is known for its high milk production and adaptability to various environmental conditions, making it a valuable asset for dairy farmers.
Nili Ravi buffaloes are primarily found in the Punjab region of Pakistan, where they are raised for their milk, which is used to make various dairy products such as butter, ghee, and yogurt. The breed is also known for its high fertility, docile temperament, and ability to thrive in the hot and humid climate of the region.
In Pakistan, the Nili Ravi buffalo is considered a national treasure, and efforts have been made to preserve and improve the breed. The government has established research institutions and breeding programs to promote the breed and enhance its milk production capabilities.
Despite its importance to the country’s economy, the Nili Ravi buffalo has faced challenges such as diseases, lack of proper nutrition, and low market prices for its milk. However, initiatives such as establishing cooperatives and using modern farming techniques have helped overcome some of these challenges and improve the livelihoods of farmers who rely on the breed for their income.
Why Nili Ravi Named as Panch Kalyan?
Nili Ravi, also known as Panch Kalyan, translates to “five virtues” in English. This name is given to the breed because it is believed to possess five important virtues that make it valuable to farmers. The five virtues of the Nili Ravi buffalo are:
- High milk production: The Nili Ravi buffalo is known for its high milk production, which makes it a valuable asset for dairy farmers.
- Good temperament: The breed is known for its docile temperament, making it easier to handle and less prone to aggression.
- Adaptability: Nili Ravi buffaloes are adaptable to different environmental conditions, including hot and humid climates.
- Fertility: The breed has a high fertility rate, meaning it can produce offspring more frequently than other breeds.
- Disease resistance: The Nili Ravi buffalo is known for its resistance to diseases, reducing farmers’ risk of loss.
These five virtues make the Nili Ravi buffalo a valuable and desirable breed for farmers in Pakistan and India, where it is primarily found. The name Panch Kalyan reflects the breed’s importance and its positive impact on the livelihoods of farmers who raise it.
The resemblance with Murrah Cow
The buffaloes are efficient milkers and, except for color, are comparable to Murrah in every aspect. Frequently, the tail button is white.
They all have curled antlers and huge and robust udders. Males reach adulthood at thirty months, whereas females reach maturity at thirty-six months. One thousand three hundred ninety days are the average life expectancy of the first calf.
The Nili Ravi buffalo is a breed of water buffalo, while the Murrah cow is a breed of domestic cattle. The Nili Ravi buffalo is typically larger and heavier than the Murrah cow, with a broad, muscular body and short, curved horns. The breed is known for its black or dark brown coat, with a white blaze on the face and white stockings on the legs.
On the other hand, the Murrah cow is known for its shiny black coat, with a white marking on the face and white stockings on the legs. The breed has a compact, sturdy build with short, tightly curved horns.
Despite their physical differences, the Nili Ravi buffalo and Murrah cows are highly valued for their milk production and are considered among the best dairy breeds in their respective countries. However, the milk produced by the Nili Ravi buffalo has a higher fat content than that of the Murrah cow, making it ideal for creating dairy products such as butter and ghee.
Fat Content and Average Weight of Nili Ravi
The Nili Ravi buffalo is known for its high milk production, with an average yield of 2,200 to 2,500 liters per lactation period. The milk of the Nili Ravi buffalo is also known for its high-fat content, which ranges from 6% to 8%, making it ideal for producing dairy products such as butter and ghee.
Regarding average weight, Nili Ravi buffaloes are known for their large and muscular build. Adult males can weigh up to 800 kg, while adult females typically weigh between 500 and 600 kg.
Due to their high milk production and adaptability to various environmental conditions, the Nili Ravi buffalo is valuable for dairy farmers in Pakistan and India. Efforts have been made to improve the breed’s milk production capabilities and preserve its genetic diversity by establishing research institutions and breeding programs. The breed’s high-fat-content milk also provides an opportunity for the development of value-added dairy products, which can contribute to the region’s economic growth.
The Nili Ravi buffalo is known for its docile temperament, making it easier to handle and less prone to aggression. It is an essential behavioral quality for dairy farmers who work closely with the animals daily.
The breed is also known for its adaptability to different environmental conditions, including hot and humid climates. It makes it a valuable asset for farmers in regions with extreme weather conditions, as the breed can tolerate high temperatures and humidity.
The Nili Ravi buffalo is a highly fertile breed with a high reproductive rate. It can produce offspring more frequently than other breeds, an important factor for farmers looking to increase their herd size.
However, like all animals, Nili Ravi buffaloes can exhibit behavioral issues if not correctly cared for. Stress, lack of proper nutrition, and poor living conditions can lead to aggression, illness, and decreased milk production.
Cost of Nili Ravi
The cost of a Nili Ravi Buffalo in 2021 depends on various factors such as location, age, weight, and animal health, as well as the demand and supply in the market. According to some reports, the average cost of a Nili Ravi Buffalo in 2021 in Pakistan was between PKR 500,000 to PKR 1,500,000 (approximately USD 1695 to USD 5,084). However, prices may vary depending on the region, market conditions, and other factors. It’s best to consult with local farmers or livestock traders to get the most up-to-date information about the cost of Nili Ravi Buffalo in your area.
The Nili Ravi Buffalo is a breed of domestic buffalo found in the Punjab region of India and Pakistan. It is a high-yielding dairy breed and is well-known for its milk production capabilities, particularly in its butterfat content. The breed is also known for its adaptability to a range of environmental conditions and for being relatively resistant to diseases.